NB: I was asked to pen a quick summary of social media & the BBC as “background reading” for an internal meeting so republishing here. Its inevitably partial as its meant to be a summary not the definitive history. Also apologies for any errors. They are mine. Thanks especially to Martin Belam, Robin Hamman, Lizzie Jackson, Euan Semple, Andrew Bowden , Daniel Bennett, Kevin Anderson, and Peta Haigh for their memories, help over the years and especially for their blogging. Otherwise i’d never have been able to put this together.
(This post was originally written in July 2011 . Its been updated with new links, projects and comments in April 2014).
A History of Social at BBC Online:
It’s now almost a cliche to say that the BBC has always been social. Radio and TV has, of course, for over 80 years been a catalyst for overwhelming responses from listeners and viewers. Its stories, presenters and DJs have provided the social capital around which thousands of real life (and now online) communities have coalesced, normally without any BBC support or ownership. Staff guidance for tweeting and before that blogging is relatively recent but the infrastructure and policies to support interaction from programmes as diverse as Swap Shop, Blue Peter, Family Favourites and Crimewatch is long standing inside the BBC.
We are prone to imagine that, for example, the 4 year old Radio 1 Facebook page is a completely new phenomenon forgetting of course that Radio 1 pioneered and hosted in the late 60s the “Radio 1 Club”; a ” link between the listeners at home and the D.J.’s and stars” , where alongside a weekly live radio show from various venues in the UK, Radio Times featured a “members magazine”. And like today there were even disruptive listeners; in 1970 a R1 commissionaire was attacked by “rowdy teenagers” at a club event.
So this very quick canter through
15 Years 20 Years of social media
at BBC Online is, in lots of way, as the baseball player Yogi Berra so memorably put it. “like Deja Vu, all over again”
1994 -1997 – At B-B-C dot co uk…
1994 - BBC websites for programmes start to appear from 1994 onwards although the formal launch of BBC Online/BBC News Online is still 3 years away. Email addresses and URLs start to be read out on air. Some news/radio programmes experiment with IRC. This continues sporadically into the next decade until Twitter effectively kills it off in 2009/10.
1997 – 2000: Forums, and Live Chats
1997: BBC Online and BBC News Online formally launch in Nov 1997.
1997 – The first BBC message board launches for the old Radio 4 programme; Home Truths closely followed by EastEnders, & Doctor Who (even though it wasn’t to return to the BBC for another 8 years). A fairly crude third party piece of software was used until replaced by an internal system dubbed Howerd 1 (after Frankie’s 70s stage show “A funny thing happened on the way to a forum” – geddit ?). It was replaced by Howerd2, only meant to be a brief temporary upgrade. It lasted 4 years.
1998 – Lizzie Jackson is hired to become the BBC’s first Category Manager for Communities. The BBC’s community team grows until at its peak there are 8 community managers for different BBC depts. The BBC’s first guidelines for hosting and moderation are established.
2000-2003 iPresenters & iStudio
2000 – Ashley Highfield joins the BBC as its new “New” Media boss and in the midst of the dot.com crash, purchases online forum; H2G2; (HitchHikers Guide to the Galaxy:ie: H2G2), its community , staff and technology (Called DNA after Douglas Noel Adams). Still 5 years before Wikipedia launches and seen by some as a “what if” moment, its technology still effectively powers BBC’s social publishing team 11 years later.
2001: The Joy of Text; a theme night devoted to SMS on BBC One receives the lowest ever ratings share for a prime time BBC One programme in its history although a record 500K texts were received during the evening.
2001: During the 2001 election, Nick Robinson keeps a regularly updated online diary of quotes, links, photos and text messages, the BBC’s first official formative “blog”. He returns to the BBC in 2005; pronounces “My name is Nick Robinson and I’m a blogger” and is one of the first bloggers on the BBC’s new blog platform. (Developed using Six Aparts’ Movable Type software)
2002: The launch of iPlayer was 6 years away but bbc.co.uk launches, in its Bush House building in Aldwych, a dedicated studio devoted to live chats with celebrities and recruits dubbed iStudio. It recruits a mix of new talent and broadcasters (iPresenters) to host the chats. One of which; Spencer Kelly later goes on to present BBC News’ technology programme BBC Click. The experiment is quietly abandoned when New Media moves to new accommodation in W12 in 2004.
2002: The rebranding of BBC Online as BBCi and the redesign of the BBC site gives it a site wide toolbar for the first time. One of the permanent links is an index page: dubbed “Communicate” (“chat, messageboards and more” ). Listing the BBC’s live chats, forums and ways to discuss BBC programmes and topics, it remained there for another 3 years.
2003 – 2005: User Generated Content and the rise of the Citizen Journalist
2003 Internally called “chat around content”; a web based instant chat service dubbed “BBC Connector” appears on several sites. Never officially “launched” and closed in 2005 it was used during the 2004 Olympics and on sites for Radio 1 and Strictly Come Dancing.
2003: Following Greg Dyke’s Political review initiated after the 2001 General Election had the lowest turn out on record, work starts on the The Action Network project, originally called iCan. It launched in 2003 , widely praised with this (ex BBC) academic rightfully calling it the “most high profile and ambitious attempts by a public service broadcaster to foster participation through an online civic commons”.
Again ahead of its time, it failed though to have impact and the mainstreaming of Facebook, petition software and Twitter following the 2005 election meant it was quietly closed in 2008.
2004: Three years after it purchased H2G2, BBC finally migrates its message board/forum portfolio (outside of BBC News) to the DNA platform. By now the majority of BBC message boards are reactively moderated. Moderation is handled by a third party company. Strict internal governance is introduced to reduce rising pan BBC moderation costs. This moderation model still exists today.
2004: Chris Kimber, until recently the Managing Editor for BBC Radio/Music interactive, says in an interview with The Independent looking back on the last decade:
““Only 10 years ago, radio was a one-way experience, but digital technology has given the radio ears that provide programme-makers with instant feedback. Before they had to rely on getting letters back but now we have chat rooms, message boards, text messaging and e-mail. Programmes can really connect with audiences in a way that 10 years ago they could not“
2004: The wealth of user filmed footage of the Boxing Day Indian Ocean earthquake leads to a proposal to create a pilot UGC hub inside BBC Newsgathering; flitering, verifying and distributing (to TV, and BBC News online) the thousands of images, video and text sent to BBC News..
2004: Pioneering blogs spring up around the BBC (Kevin Anderson’s US Election diary) or using external platforms (Paul Mason’s G8 focused blog for Newsnight hosted on Typepad). This leads (in 2005) and advised by Anderson to Pete Clifton’s (Head of BBC News interactive) notorious internal, but later published in his weekly online column, email where he pledged to no longer launch blogs that “weren’t blogs” which he defined as having permalinks, RSS & comments. A blogs network, powered by Movable Type, launches in the BBC in late 2005.
2004: BBC News migrates its Have Your Say forums to a platform powered by third party software provider; Jive and uses the BBC’s SSO iD system for the first time.
2005-8 “Use the Web as your canvas”
2005: Island Blogging: A BBC Scotland community site that allowed users to blog via the BBC’s pages launches. One of the first hyper local sites, it closed in 2010.
July 7th 2005: The lessons of 7/7 help formalise the BBC News UGC pilot which leads to the creation of a team which later grows to 20 staff and a 24/7 service.
2006: A blog post from Helen Boaden launches the Editors’ blog inside BBC News. A response to the Hutton inquiry ; it aspires to be a place for senior BBC staff to explain their decisions. Similar blogs are later launched for Radio, TV, and BBC Online itself.
2006: Blogging Guidance: After a consultation process using a wiki and the BBC’s internal staff message boards; The BBC publishes staff guidance on blogging for the first time. It is later copied and forms the basis of guidelines for many other public sector organizations.
2006: The BBC’s strategic rethink becomes dubbed BBC2.0 and the BBC publishes a set of 15 web principles to aspire to. These include “The web is a conversation. Join in: Adopt a relaxed, conversational tone. Admit your mistakes.” And “Link to discussions on the web, don’t host them: Only host web-based discussions where there is a clear rationale”.
A further principle “Treat the entire web as a creative canvas” is more enthusiastically adopted by the BBC as it starts to establishes presences on Flickr, YouTube, Second Life, MySpace, and eventually Facebook and Twitter.
2006: Ashley Highfield makes a speech about social software and the BBC “we absolutely don’t want to become a MySpace or a Flickr or a Friends Reunited, we want to work with these players, to partner our relevant offerings with theirs.”. Its later highly criticised by ex BBC staffer Tom Coates in one of the most notorious blog posts of the time “Who’s afraid of Ashley Highfield ?”
Oct 2006 The 606 message board is replaced by a new 606 community/social network powered by the DNA platform. For a brief period it becomes the largest sport specific social network in the UK. It eventually closes as part of DQF announcements in the summer of 2011.
2007: As part of the BBC’s fledgling Developer Network; Backstage; the BBC works with developer Mario Menti to launch automated Twitter accounts for @bbcnews and @bbcbreaking for the first time. Menti now runs Twitterfeed; the automated twitterfeed service.
2007: Radio 4 launch iPM; a weekly 30 minute radio show that aimed to “source what we do through the best blogs, passionate ‘ear catching’ online debate as well as comments and recommendations of others.” It still runs in 2014 although its online experimentation (sharing potential stories ) is now less prominent.
2008 – 2010: Social Media
2008: BBC updates its blogging guidance to incorporate “social networking”. The BBC’s Director for Editorial Policy; David Jordan said “It does not restrict BBC staff from conducting legitimate activities on the Internet. But it does raise awareness of how crucial the BBC’s reputation for impartiality and objectivity is.”
2008 BBC upgrades it blogs (still being powered by Movable Type) but implements a site wide UI, and integrates comments from DNA for the first time enabling blog comments to use the BBC’s back end moderation platform. By now it has 100+ blogs across all its depts.
2009: BBC appoints its first social media editors; Roo Reynolds in BBC TV (now Rowan Kerek Robertson), Alex Gubbay in BBC News (now Chris Hamilton) and Jem Stone in BBC Radio. Its Communications team later appoints a Head of Engagement; Sophie Brendel.
Presenters and programmes start to use Twitter for the first time but it is still very much a niche activity.
2010: iPlayer v3.0 launches which features Twitter/Facebook integration and friends recommendations/comments for the first time. Take up of the social features is mixed, however, and they are again dropped by 2012.
2010: BBC upgrades its Blogging (now Social Media) Guidelines to incorporate advice for microblogging (ie: Tweeting) for the first time. Hashtags start to appear on TV screens. BBC News launch a social media training programme for all its staff.
Richard Bacon becomes the first regular BBC presenter to have over a 1m followers on Twitter.
2010: “Live” pages form the cornerstone of the BBC’s Election (and post-Election) pages, World Cup site, and Ashes site. Embedding tweets, blog posts, links and summaries they remain the key platform to do connected storytelling inside Journalism. BBC TV and Radio deploy third party software; Cover It Live to do likewise for large events such as Glastonbury.
2010: The 10th anniversary of “MustardLand”; The Archers (the Radio 4 soap) message board; One of the few remaining forums inside the BBC, it still attracted over 1m posts (a substantial amount of which are off topic) published live to the server by users every year. It eventually closed in Feb 2013.
- As part of DQF announcements, at the beginning of the year, BBC announces it will consolidate its forums, blogs and replace with “integrated social tools”. It pledges to “not launch its own social network”
- BBC News (and later Sport) effectively abandon blogs as a stand alone format and integrates them into new Correspondents Pages aggregating an persons articles, tweets and reports; It introduces a character limit to comments for the first time and closes its destination forum Have Your Say. Most other BBC blogs retain the existing design and comment format.
- Twitter replies and retweets outnumber SMS sent to Radio 1 and 5 Live in a month for the first time. The @bbcbreaking twitter account takes off following a series of unprecendented international news stories. It now (April 2014) has close to 10m followers.
- Sharetools; a BBC version of “tweet this” and a Facebook “share” button is launched on BBC News and iPlayer. It replaced in some areas of the site; a “share this” “bar” with links to Digg, Del.ici.ous that had been available, with limited take up, since 2006.
- One of the first high profile “tweet-alongs” takes place during the 60th anniversary of Radio 4′s The Archers as a double episode sees the death of much loved character Nigel Pargetter. It attracts over 25,000 tweets. Such events ,either encouraged by the BBC or merely spontaneous activity by fans, listeners and viewers, start become commonplace in the next few years.
2011- 2014 Twitter, Facebook and the mainstream.
By now, although the BBC still publishes tens of thousands of comments per day mostly below the line of news stories; its social media activity is largely focused around sharing content and engaging with viewers and listeners via third party platforms; Twitter, Facebook and Instagram.
2011: Radio 1 appoints Ben Cooper as its new Controller and under pressure to maintain engagement with young listeners , embraces social media platforms as part of its strategy. It changes its on air tagline to “Listen,Watch, Share”,and young producers start to pioneer a raft of on air and online innovations with superfans and communities. Its new Sunday night presenters; Dan and Phil are perhaps better known for their films and interviews on YouTube.
2012: Acknowledging how participating online had been transformed over the last decade the BBC publishes a celebrated piece of research arguing that the long standing 1.9.90 rule was “outmoded” and that “Participation is now the rule rather than the exception: 77% of the UK online population is now active in some way.”
2013: Use of hashtags in live events, references to tweets in news bulletins , discussing selfies and mentioning the BBC’s and other people’s activity on social media platforms is ubiquitous across nearly every TV and radio network. BBC issues new guidance about how social media platforms should be referred to on air.
During The Voice in 2013, Will.I.Am reveals the name of his finalist on Twitter first before announcing it on air.
2014: BBC News launches a new short format news bulletin designed for sharing on the photo/video sharing service Instagram now owned by Facebook.
BBC Sport starts to routinely allow viewers to vote on topical questions using Twitter hashtags.
The BBC hosts an event celebrating 20 years since its first website in April 1994 As part of the celebrations it posts a clip of 1994 TV programme; The Net which showcased the “BBC Networking Club” a not for profit subscription website offering some early social networking and bulletin board features.” Which i think is where we came in.
- Radio 1 Club (1968) – The Radio history site has clips and anecdotes about his pre-cursor to the Radio 1 roadshow and ultimately Radio 1 Big Weekend: http://www.radiorewind.co.uk/radio1/radio_1_club_page.htm
- “Brandon’s History of Online BBC ” Now the BBC’s Chief Engineer Brandon Butterworth recalls the pre BBC Online days of introducing IRC and email into programmes for the first time: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/bbcinternet/2007/12/brandons_history_of_bbc_on_the_2.html
- H2G2: How the purchase of H2G2 changed the policies and culture of the BBC. Mark Moxon in an H2G2 forum thread.http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/F55683?thread=130228
- “Hugh Garry – A deja vu moment” – Huey discusses the early days of the Radio 1 website and use of emails/early interaction with DJs/presenters-
- The BBC iStudio (2002) - A press release launching the ill-fated iStudio, home of 100s of live web chats in Bush House, the former home of New Media & Technology (FM&T as was) in the early naughties. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2002/09_september/05/studio_fastfacts.shtml
- BBC 2.0: Why Royal Television Society Baird Lecture -BBC 2.0: why on demand changes everything – Celebrated speech from Mark Thompson at Edinburgh TV Festival in 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/speeches/stories/thompson_baird.shtml
- “Many people don’t visit bbc.co.uk. So their only contact with the BBC might be on someone’s personal blog.” Nick Reynolds discusses how the BBC’s first blogging guidelines were developed.http://nickreynoldsatwork.wordpress.com/2008/01/10/bbc-blogging-guidelines-nostalgia-1/
- The BBC’s 15 Web Principles – Tom Loosemore (2006/7) 15 web principles semi adopted by the BBC. http://www.slideshare.net/hvs/bbc20-the-bbcs-15-web-principles
- The notorious Speak Your Branes blog, still active, that has run from 2007 – “This blog is dedicated to the dribble-spattered lunacy of BBC “Have Your Say” discussions.”http://ifyoulikeitsomuchwhydontyougolivethere.com/about/
- New Ways into Blogs (2008) – Giles Wilson explains to BBC News users how the BBC has adopted a single pan BBC blogs platform integrating BBCiD and a sign in commenting feature across all BBC blogs http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/theeditors/2008/04/new_ways_into_blogs.html
- The launch of iPlayer v.3.0 featuring friends recommendations and facebook/twitter integration. “Introducing the all new BBC iPlayer (This time it’s personal)” – Anthony Rose (2010) http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/bbcinternet/2010/05/introducing_the_all_new_bbc_ip.html
- UGC 5 Years On – Matthew Eltringham, until recently the Head of the BBC News’ UGC newsgathering team reflects on the 5 years since 7/7 and the launch/evolution of the UGC hub http://www.bbc.co.uk/journalism/blog/2010/07/ugc-five-years-on.shtml
- “Is there too much of a desire to fit in to the online world as it is, and not enough of a vision for the unique role that the BBC can play in shaping that world?” Matthew Shorter (ex BBC Music Interactive Editor now consultant) “BBC’s Online Social Strategy” (2011)http://www.unthinkableconsulting.com/blog/2011/2/2/bbc-onlines-social-strategy.html
- Radio’s Twitter Obsession – Matt Deegan “The problem is real people, they really couldn’t care less.” A sceptical blogpost, from an influential commentator criticizing BBC Radio’s (amongst others) use of Twitter.http://www.mattdeegan.com/2011/05/15/radio%E2%80%99s-twitter-obsession/
- No more ‘us and them’: How 20 years of digital communications smashed the boundaries between media and audience – Martin Belam (2011). Many references to the history of interaction between BBC radio/tv/online and listeners/viewers/users – http://www.currybet.net/cbet_blog/2010/11/belam-wud1.php
- Martin has documented BBC Online’s history actively during 2000-2005 when he worked there and subsequently from afar including a series of posts about the BBC’s History of Engagement. Read his invaluable archives: http://www.currybet.net/cbet_blog/2010/01/working-at-the-bbc.php
- Early community producer; Robin Hamman blogged extensively about the BBC’s experiments in this area. See his BBC archives. http://www.cybersoc.com/bbc/